Just like bricklaying, roofing works are performed manually. The main threats during such works arise from:
Bricklaying works are basic construction works. They are performed in the traditional manner - manually, or they are mechanised.
The most common threats include:
- Workers falling on a flat level, from altitude or into pits
- Injuries from falling materials, tools etc. (lack of fencing around danger zones and lack of marking of danger zones)
- Eye injuries: mechanical, chemical and thermal (general lack of use of goggles)
- Bruising and injuring of the hands and feet by materials being carried - skin burns from cement and lime.
Bricklaying and plastering works should be undertaken exclusively from permanent platforms or scaffolding. It is not permissible to perform these works from lean-to ladders. It is simultaneously prohibited to work on two or more storeys in the same area of the floor plan, without protection of the workers against falling materials and tools.
Openings in the walls, where the lower edge is below 0.8 m from the level of the ceiling or the platform, should be secured by protective barriers to prevent workers falling from altitude. Openings in the ceilings should be covered or fenced with protective barriers. Walking on freshly built walls, vaults, plates, floors and opening covers is prohibited.
The level of the working platform on the scaffolding should always be at least 0.3 m below the level of the wall being built, and no more than 1.5 m.
The width of the bricklayer's work post in the excavation may not be less than 0.7 m from the escarpment to the wall being built. Workers should enter into the excavation on ladders or along ramps.
During bricklaying, it is not permissible to load the working platform with excess bricks, while spilt mortar and rubble should be removed immediately.
Mixers, concrete mixers and plastering unit operators should be trained on the safe use of the construction equipment. The operation of the plastering unit and the concrete pump may only be entrusted to an operator with appropriate qualifications.
The construction plant and machinery should be connected to the electricity network in a manner that ensures safety of work in terms of protection from electrocution and must be secured from mechanical damage.
Pouring of the concrete mass into formwork must not take place at a height of greater than 1 m. The concrete mass must be poured equally in order not to allow for the overloading of the formwork in individual places. When passing the concrete to an altitude by means of a pump, the concrete placers should be able to communicate with the pump operator. In the case of manual and mechanical plastering, particularly onto ceilings, the plasterer's eyes must be protected with goggles.
The use of protective creams is recommended to protect the skin of the hands from the caustic action of the bricklaying mortar and concrete.
Bricklayers and their assistants should wear gloves during work that protect them from mechanical injuries (e.g. leather and fabric gloves or gloves from rubber coated knitted fabric).